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Supplementive constructions
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Supplementives describe a temporary state that receives a simultaneous or conditional interpretation with respect to what is described in the main clause. Supplementives can be classified depending on whether their structure is bare or full-fledged. The absolute with construction instantiates a full-fledged supplementive:

  1. Bare supplementive
  2. Absolute with construction

A bare supplementive consists of an AP predicated of a NP functioning as subject or direct object.

Example 1

Sy kom uitgeput by die gastehuis aan.
she comes exhausted at the guesthouse on
She arrived at the guesthouse, exhausted.

The absolute with construction contains a complementiser (the preposition metwith), the argument of the predication (losskakelfly half) and the AP predicate:

Example 2

Met die beste losskakel beseer, het die keurders 'n groot kopseer.
with the best fly.half injured have the selectors a big headache
With the best fly half injured, the selectors have a big problem.
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    A bare supplementive consists of an AP predicated of a NP functioning as subject or direct object, while the absolute with construction involves a complementiser and an extension.

    (a) Bare supplementive
    In supplementive and appositive constructions, the predication is an optional addition to the clause. The predication is integrated in the outer structure as an adverb:

    Example 3

    Gert het besope by die partytjie opgedaag.
    Gert has plastered at the party arrived
    Gert arrived at the party, drunk.

    Adjectives such as dronkdrunkand kaalnaked, for example, are frequently used in a supplementive construction. Like adverbs of manner, such as vinnigfast, they can be questioned with the aid of the question word hoe?how?

    Example 4

    Hoe het hy oor die baan gestap?
    how has he across the court walked
    How did he walk across the court?
    Example 5

    Vinnig of stadig?
    Fast or slow?
    Example 6

    Kaal of met klere klere aan?
    naked or with clothes on
    Naked or clothed?

    Manner adverbs can be coordinated with supplementives:

    Example 7

    Hy het dronk en veels te vinnig op die N1 gery.
    he has driven drunk and much too fast on the N1
    He drove drunk and way too fast on the N1.

    Unlike manner adverbs, supplementive adjectives involves a predication of a covert argument, that is co-referential with (controlled by) the subject of the clause or the direct object:

    Example 8

    Sy het die klere ongestryk aangetrek.
    she has the clothes unironed put.on
    She put on the clothes unironed.

    (b) Absolute with construction
    The predicate of an absolute with construction is usually of the category PP, but AP is also possible:

    Example 9

    Met Faf op sy stukke sal die span beslis wen.
    with Faf on his pieces will the team surely win
    'With Faf in great shape, the team is bound to win.
    Example 10

    Met Dale beseer, kan hulle moontlik verloor.
    with Dale inured can they possibly lose
    'With Dale inured, they might possibly lose.

    The constituent as a whole receives a simultaneous or conditional interpretation with respect to what is described in the main clause. Supplementives also have this semantic property.

    References:
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