• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
Infixation
quickinfo

Infixation is the insertion of an affix inside a base. Infixation is very rare in Frisian. It only occurs with complex adjectives that contain an intensifying prefix. An example is reinferlegenin urgent need (for something) > reinstienferlegenin urgent need (for something), where the infix -stien- is inserted. Although this element also occurs as the noun stienstone, it only has an extra intensifying (or affective) function here.

readmore

Infixation is a very marginal phenomenon in Frisian. This already might be expected on theoretical grounds, as infixation in Frisian needs a complex base, in contrast to prefixation and suffixation, which may operate on a simplex word. Infixation in Frisian only occurs in the derivation of adjectives. The input adjectives are all prefixed by an intensifying element that appears in an elative compound, or by the comparable prefix poer-. Here are the main cases:


Table 1
Base form Derivation
poergekvery crazy poergleongekvery crazy
poerhastichvery hasty poergekhastichvery hasty
poermâlvery mad poerstrontmâlvery mad
reinferlegenin urgent need (of something) reinstienferlegenin urgent need (of something)
deaferlegenin urgent need (of something) deastienferlegenin urgent need (of something)
sikerwiervery true sikersûndewierdefinitely true

One reason for assuming that something like infixation is going on in such cases is the fact that for example the word *gekhastich does not exist, where poerhastich does. Therefore, a possible prefixation with poer- is excluded. One therefore has to conclude that -gek- in poergekhastich has been inserted between poer- and -hastich.

In addition, it is plausible that what is inserted here really has the status of an affix. It must be conceded that the inserted elements also occur as independent word. Nevertheless, compounding is not an obvious option, as this always operates on the edges of the input, and not inside a base. Another argument is functional. The word stien, for instance, is the Frisian word for stone, but here it only has an intensifying role. This is not different from the other inserted elements, which in this respect quite closely resemble the first element of elative compounds. They therefore have the effect of a further intensification, and possibly in connection, the infix might also add an element of affectiveness here.

Since the data are so scarce, one is led to assume that this pattern of infixation is not productive in Frisian. On the other hand, one could also imagine that new formations can readily be formed, given the strong emotional atmosphere which such derivations belong to.

[hide extra information]
x
English

These infixation facts of Frisian reminds one of the behaviour of English fucking or bloody in derivations like fan-fucking-tastic or abso-bloody-lutely. A difference is the condition in Frisian that the insertion point is between two morphemes.

[hide extra information]
x
Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:73-74).

[hide extra information]
x Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:73-74).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
Suggestions for further reading ▼
phonology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show more ▼
morphology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • Ellipsis
    [82%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Adjectives
  • In prenominal position
    [82%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Adjectives
  • Cardinal numbers
    [81%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Numerals
  • ûn-
    [80%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Prefixation > Adjectival prefixes > Adjective as base
  • poer-
    [80%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Prefixation > Adjectival prefixes > Adjective as base
Show more ▼
syntax
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • 1.3.3. Non-spatial/temporal prepositions
    [80%] Dutch > Syntax > Adpositions and adpositional phrases > 1 Characteristics and classification > 1.3. A semantic classification of adpositional phrases
  • 11.3.1.1. Wh-movement in simplex clauses (short wh-movement)
    [80%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 11 Word order in the clause III:Clause-initial position (wh-movement) > 11.3. Clause-initial position is filled > 11.3.1. Wh-questions
  • 3.3. Negative and affirmative contexts
    [79%] Dutch > Syntax > Adjectives and Adjective Phrases > 3 Projection of adjective phrases II: Modification
  • 3.2.1.4. The krijgen-passive
    [79%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 3 Projection of verb phrases II:Verb frame alternations > 3.2. Alternations involving the external argument > 3.2.1. Passivization
  • 2.1.4. Undative verbs
    [79%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 2 Projection of verb phrases I:Argument structure > 2.1. Nominal arguments
  • Mood
    [76%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Introduction to Verb Phrases > Characterization and classification
  • Epistemic modality
    [75%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Introduction to Verb Phrases > Characterization and classification > Modality
  • Attribution
    [75%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Introduction to Adjective Phrases
  • Finite declarative complement clauses: construction forms
    [74%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Introduction to Verb Phrases > Complement clauses > Finite declarative complement clauses
  • Root modality
    [74%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Introduction to Verb Phrases > Characterization and classification > Modality
Show more ▼
cite
print